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Report of the /Rapport du


Second National Forum of the Citizenship Education Research Network

Deuxième Forum national du

Réseau de recherche sur l’éducation à la citoyenneté



Globalization, Cultures, Societies:

The Contribution of Research on Citizenship Education



Globalisation, cultures, sociétés :

l'apport de la recherche à l'éducation à la citoyenneté






May 27-28 mai 2000, University of Alberta, Edmonton

as a post-forum of the annual conference of the

Comparative and International Education Society of Canada/

Canadian Society for the Study of Education

Un post-forum du congrès annuel de la

Société canadienne de l’éducation comparée et internationale/

Société canadienne pour l’étude de l’éducation




Équipe de rédaction/Recording Team


Christine Racicot (U Calgary)

Jackie Kirk (McGill U)

Christian Meyers (U Sherbrooke)

Jimmy Bourque (U Sherbrooke)



Organisation & Coordination

Dr. Yvonne Hébert (U Calgary)

Saturday May 27 Day 1/Samedi 27 mai 2000, Jour Un : 8:30-9:45

Session/Séance I: Conférence invitée d’ouverture/Opening Invitational Presentation


Crisis as a Vehicle for Educational Reform: The Case of Citizenship Education

Alan Sears (Associate Dean Research, Faculty of Education, University of New Brunswick)


Minutes/Compte rendu.     Alan Sears started the meetings[1] with a broad and yet provocative discussion of the position of citizenship education across Canada in light of perceived crises in the education sector. In the past, educational reforms in the USA and Canada, have been launched in almost knee jerk response to the real or imagined crises for example, of Russian scientific advancement. Historically, interest in citizenship education and multiculturalism can also be seen as a response to crises of immigration, the disaffection of youth, and increasing globalization. Examples were given of new ‘citizenship education’ initiatives, projects, books and organizations which have developed in recent years around the world, in particular in response to the three real or imagined crises of ignorance, alienation and agnosticism. The youth of today are perceived to lack the knowledge for effective citizenship, to be alienated from the structures and systems of society, and to doubt the values of democratic citizenship.

This crisis-driven explosion of interest, activity (and funding), in citizenship education, whilst certainly interesting, may however, lead to ill-conceived reforms; education systems have a history of misdiagnosis and of therefore giving the wrong treatment. The perceived ‘crises’ were challenged. Are young people actually more ignorant ? What exactly is it they do not know ? What questions and criteria are these judgements based on ? How do we measure alienation ? Maybe there is less youth participation in national politics, but what is happening at the local level ? Can we blame young people for being alienated from structures and process in which they do not see themselves reflected ? As a contrast to some of the ‘cures’ that have been proposed by different education authorities (which often fail to make a logical connection to the problem identified), examples were shared of young people very much engaged in democratic movements, citizenship activities, showing clear understanding, involvement and commitment.

Alan’s presentation provoked an animated discussion; there was much agreement on the need to reflect critically first on the assumptions made by various surveys and reports and then on appropriate responses to what they are telling us. There seems a need to attend carefully to what young people are saying and doing in citizenship education, especially in the spaces outside of formal school curricula. (JK)


Saturday May 27 Day 1/Samedi 27 mai 2000, Jour Un : 10:00-11:15

Session/Séance II      Citizenship Behaviours, Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge

Comportements, attitudes, habiletés et connaissances de la citoyenneté


Children’s and Young People’s Understanding of the Ideas of Citizenship

Alan Sears, Gerry Clarke and Andy Hughes (University of New Brunswick)


Abstract/Précis : In the past several years there has been an explosion of interest in citizenship education around the world.  In several western liberal democracies, most notably the United States  (Quigley & Bahmueller, 1991), Australia (Kennedy, 1997; Print, 1997) and England (Advisory Group on Citizenship, 1998), significant national initiatives are underway to raise the profile of citizenship education and improve teaching and learning in the area.  In Canada, the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada has recently put citizenship education on its research agenda. It is not only relatively long term democracies which are showing an interest in democratic citizenship education, however.  Many new democracies in Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa are also moving to develop curricula and implement programs in the field (see, for example, Torney‑Purta, Schwille & Amadeo, 1999; Cogan & Derricott, Kennedy, 1997; Oldenquist, 1996).

While all of this policy and curriculum development activity goes forward, there is a very limited research base to inform it. One of the problems for educators is that they are charged with the responsibility of communicating an amorphous concept and little guidance is available in terms of processes that give rise to effective citizenship education. The difficulties confronting  educators could be summarized as follows:  There is no generally accepted concept of citizenship to give direction to the enterprise, nor are there generally accepted indicators of performance. Little is known about how children, young people and adults understand the ideas of citizenship; or how such understanding varies with age, gender, class nationality and culture. The mechanisms through which such understandings are developed are not well understood.

        The work being reported on here seeks to address the second of these difficulties by “mapping” the way children and young people understand some key ideas and concepts related to citizenship. The research approach falls under the general rubric of phenomenography

which is “an empirically based approach that aims to identify the qualitatively different ways in which different people experience, conceptualize, perceive, and understand various kinds of phenomena.” Specifically, data collection involves the use of semi‑projective technique (Greenstein & Tarrow, 1970) supplemented by clinical interviewing (Damon, 1977) emphasizing a think‑aloud component (Torney‑Purta, 1994; 1995). The data is analyzed using content analysis and concept mapping (Torney‑Purta, 1994; 1995).

        The research, which is being conducted with students between 7 and 18 years of age, is ongoing and this paper will report on preliminary findings particularly related to the concepts of dissent and freedom.. Early evidence indicates that, while there are a range of understandings for these concepts among students ‑ even those of the same age ‑ these understandings tend to cluster into categories. In regard to freedom, for example, some grade eight students seem to have a very simplistic understanding of the concept seeing it as the absence of any restraint. 

Others, however, exhibit a more complex understanding of freedom existing in tension with legitimate societal interests which limit it. 




Advisory Group on Citizenship (1998).  Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools.  London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

Cogan, John & Derricott, Ray (1998).  Citizenship for the 21st Century: An International Perspective on Education.  Stylus Publishing.

Damon, W. (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Jossey‑Bass.

Greenstein, F.I. & Tarrow, S. (1970).  Political Orientations of Children: The Use of Semi‑Projective Technique in Three Nations. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Kennedy, K. (1997).  Citizenship Education and the Modern State. London: Falmer Press.

Oldenquist, A (1996). ed.,  Can Democracy be Taught?  Perspectives on Education for Democracy in the United States, Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, South Africa, and Japan.  Bloomington, Indiana: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Print, M. (1997). Phoenix or Shooting Star?  Citizenship Education in Australia.  In K. Kennedy, ed.,  Citizenship Education and the Modern State. London: Falmer Press, pp. 126‑136.

Torney‑Purta, J. (1994).  Dimensions of Adolescents’ Reasoning about Political and Historical Issues: Ontological Switches, Developmental Processes and Situated Learning.  In M. Carretero and J.F. Voss, eds., Cognitive and Instructional Processes in History and the Social Sciences. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Torney‑Purta, J. (1995).  Psychological Theory as a Basis for Political Socialization Research: Individuals’ Construction of Knowledge.  Perspectives on Political Science 24: 23‑33.

Torney Purta, Judith; Schwille, John & Amadeo Jo‑Ann (1999). Civic Education Across Countries: Twenty four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project. Amsterdam: IEA.


Notes/Compte rendu.          The initial questions of this research concerned the knowledge of learners about citizenship and the understanding of this concept. They saw that the knowledge of the learners could be considered as « private » knowledge or as « naive » theories of citizenship. The aim was that the learners would leave school with a notion of dissent after having discussed about this concept in terms of dissent as defence, dissent as dialogue and dissent as defiance. One of the problems was that the comprehension of dissent changed with the « community » of participants (for example, with Native students; with South American students). (CM)



The Enactment of Friendship in Identity Formation among Immigrant Youth as Forms of Citizenship/ Le rôle de l’amitié dans la formation identitaire parmi les jeunes immigrés en tant que formes de la citoyenneté   (A PowerPoint Presentation)

Christine Racicot and Yvonne Hébert (University of Calgary)


Abstract/Précis : Drawing upon our on-going qualitative research project on identity formation among Canadian adolescents residing in a western Canadian city, we examine the enactment of friendship among these youth who, in moving locally, provincially, nationally or internationally, seek to make new friends and associations so as to create attachments to the new context.

Analyzing the sociograms of sixty-seven youth, we describe the participants and their drawings by means of a statistical analysis making use of SPSS, in terms of race, language, gender, ethnicity, religion and other salient variables, such as friends within the same institutions, neighbourhoods, and other forms of networks. Then, moving beyond the youth’s profile, we attempt a content analysis by exploring the concepts of ‘selectivity’and ‘reflexivity’ at play in the youth’s choice of friends, in terms of the temporal and spatial proximity of association, as well as the degree and intensity of friendship, as well as its reciprocal and mutual nature. Next we link these two forms of analysis to the concepts of ‘connectivity’ and ‘spatiality’ explored earlier (Hébert et al, 1999) in terms of other visual data dealing with drawings of spaces which the same youth occupy, so as to apply all three concepts to the larger data set.

Then in order to understand the significance of the findings, we set the data analyses so as to interpret them within theoretical contexts, dealing with identity formation, with civic, political and social participation, as well as with postmodern views of realities and of the future.


Notes/Compte rendu.          This presentation addressed the adolescent’s process of identity formation. Sixty-two students of different nationalities, cultural backrounds and religions participated in this study which took place in Calgary. The aim of the paper was to find the representations of the friend relation net through the following question: how do adolescents choose their friends? The following themes were considered: inclusion / exclusion; friends from everywhere; friends who share cultural behaviors and language. The analysis was based on four styles of sociogrammes and seven compositional categories. The analysis of the sociogrammes found no corrolation between gender, country, ethnic backround, religion and the time being in Canada. The emerging themes of the sense  of belonging are exclusion / inclusion and the liberty of choice. The first conclusions are that in the adolescent’s choices in making friends, the diversity of the schools and of the cities are important as well as the challenge of culture, language and religion. (CM)


Saturday May 27 Day 1/Samedi 27 mai 2000, Jour Un : 11:30-1:00

Séance/Session III:    L’analyse des pratiques de l’éducation à la citoyenneté, Partie I : Modèles, défis et réalités / Analysis of Citizenship Education Practices, Part I: Models, Challenges and Realities


Des modèles d'intervention éducative: une grille d'analyse des pratiques enseignante vis‑à‑vis de la citoyenneté / Models of Educational intervention: An analysis grid of the teacher pratice in relation to citizenship

Yves Lenoir et François Larose (CRIFE/CRIFPE,Faculté d’éducation, Université de Sherbrooke)


Précis/Abstract.  La communication présentera succinctement une typologie des pratiques enseignantes di‑rectement inspirée des travaux de Louis Not (1979, 1987) et réaménagée par les interve‑nants (Larose et Lenoir, 1995, 1998; Lebrun, Lenoir, Larose et Désilets, 1999; Lenoir, 1991a, 1991b, 1992, 1998, 1999). En s'appuyant sur les travaux de Not (1979, 1987), quatre principaux modèles d'in‑tervention éducative (MIE) ont pu être dégagés et analysés au sein de plusieurs recherches subventionnées menées au sein du GRIFE. Le choix de cette typologie, parmi bien d'autres propositions existantes, découle du fait qu'elle est centrée "sur l'identification des rapports entre l'élève, les objets d'apprentissage et l'enseignant, en relation avec les finalités qui sous‑tendent ces rapports" (Lenoir, 1991a, p. 256). Cette classification des MIE, quelque peu adaptée par Lenoir, puis par Lenoir et Larose, a ainsi l'avantage de prendre en compte les composantes de la relation psychodidactique et leurs interactions. Elle retient comme paramètres de base les conceptions des finalités et des processus éducationnels adoptés et leurs modalités d'opérationnalisation, c'est‑à‑dire comment se conçoivent et s'actualisent les différentes interactions entre les composantes de la relation psychodidactique.

Sur la base de cette classification des pratiques enseignantes, une grille d'analyse a été conçue et testée à plusieurs reprises auprès des enseignants québécois du primaire. Cette grille permet de dégager, non les pratiques spécifiques et singulières de chaque enseignant, ainsi que Bru (1991) les considère par exemple, mais un profil des tendances exprimées par les praticiens du primaire en tant que représentations sociales. Ainsi que le souligne Audigier (1996), la «représentation sociale est un moyen de prendre en charge et d'étudier la spécificité de nos savoirs scolaires et de leurs relations avec leurs références notamment scientifiques» (p. 61). Ces représentations peuvent ensuite être confrontées aux planifications de l'enseignement par le biais d'entrevues) et aux pratiques effectives qui se déroulent en classe (par le biais d'observations directes).

Cette méthodologie de recherche, qui repose sur un cadre théorique et d'analyse éprouvé, peut  être aisément transféré à l'analyse des pratiques enseignantes ayant pour objet les dimensions relatives au concept de citoyenneté. Dans ce contexte spécifique, cependant, il importe, en plus de prendre en considération le rapport que ce concept entretient à celui de discipline scolaire (analysé par des auteurs tels que, par exemple, Audigier, Baron, Chervel, Develay ou Sachot du côté francophone, et Hoskin, Goodson, Messer‑Davidow, Shumway et Sylvan, Tanner et Tanner du côté anglosaxon), les particularités interdisci‑plinaires qui le caractérise. À cet égard, Lenoir, seul et de concert avec Larose et d'autres chercheurs du GRIFE, a mené plusieurs recherches au regard des conceptions et des prati‑ques interdisciplinaires et a largement diffusé leurs résultats et les analyses critiques qui en découlaient.

Soulignons enfin que la perspective ici adoptée n'est pas de confronter le concept de ci‑toyenneté enseigné dans les classe du primaire à un système référentiel considéré a priori comme adéquat et pertinent, mais bien plutôt de dégager les différentes tendances de l'enseignement du concept de citoyenneté sur la base de l'étude des représentations et des pratiques effectives. Toutefois, pour guider la démarche, une recension critique des différentes conceptions véhiculées dans la documentation scientifique, issues de travaux théoriques et d'études empiriques, s'avère une préalable indispensable.




Audigier, F. (1996). Recherches de didactiques de l'histoire, de la géographie, de l'éducation civique. Un itinéraire pour contribuer à la construction d'un domaine de recherche (note de synthèse pour le dipl‑ôme d'habilitation à diriger des recherches). Paris: Université Denis Diderot paris VII.

Bru, M. (1991). Les variations didactiques dans l'organisation des conditions d'apprentissage. Toulouse: Éditions universitaires du Sud.

Larose, F. et Lenoir, Y. (1995). L'interdisciplinarité didactique au primaire: étude de l'évolution des représentations et des pratiques chez des titulaires du premier cycle du primaire dans le cadre d'une recherche‑action‑formation ‑ Rapport final (volet recherche). Sherbrooke: Faculté d'éducation (Rapports de recherche du LARIDD, n° 4).

Larose, F. et Lenoir, Y. (1998). La formation continue d'enseignants du primaire à des pratiques interdisciplinaires: résultats de recherches. Revue des sciences de l'éducation, XXIV(1), 189‑228.

Lebrun, J., Lenoir, Y., Larose, F., Désilets, M. (1999). L'utilisation de matériaux didactiques par les enseignants du primaire: une approche interdisciplinaire. Contexte, problématique, objectifs et cadre théorique de la recherche. Sherbrooke: Université de Sherbrooke, Faculté d'éducation (Documents du GRIFE n° 7).

Lenoir, Y. (1991b). Des conceptions de l'intervention éducative en sciences humaines dans l'enseignement primaire au Québec et quelques implications. Pédagogies, 4, 43‑102.

Lenoir, Y. (1992). Les représentations des titulaires du primaire sur la conception et la pratique de l'interdisciplinarité et l'intégration des matières: résultats d'une recherche exploratoire. In R. Delisle et P. Bégin (dir.), L'interdisciplinarité au primaire, une voie d'avenir? (p. 17‑57). Sherbrooke: Éditions du CRP.

Lenoir, Y. (1999). Compétences didactiques et formation didactique des enseignantes et des enseignants du primaire. Rapport de recherche déposé auprès du Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines du Ca‑nada (CRSH N° 410‑95‑1385). Sherbrooke: Faculté d'éducation, Université de Sherbrooke.

Not, L. (1979). Les pédagogies de la connaissance. Toulouse: Privat.

Not, L. (1987). Enseigner et faire apprendre. Éléments de psycho‑didactique générale. Toulouse: Privat.



Locating and Imagining Spaces for Enacting Citizenship Education: Challenges for Teacher Education/ Espaces réels et imaginés pour vivre l’éducation à la citoyenneté : Défis pour la formation des enseignants

Dianne Gereluk (University of Calgary), read by Yvonne Hébert (University of Calgary)


Abstract/Précis.  The focus for this project and its presentation grew out of discussions at the Prairie Centre for Excellence for Research on Immigration and Integration workshop held at the University of Calgary on Oct. 21-23, 1999.  Citizenship education was one of the areas of education domain given extensive discussion, and from that, it was agreed to focus on the question of how citizenship is conceptualized and enacted within various cultural, geographic, social and educational spaces, and in particular, how such understanding may inform teacher education across different disciplines and grade levels. As the topic for the presentation suggests, a challenge for teacher education has several dimensions: becoming attuned the lifeworlds of children and students, creating interesting possibilities for learning, and creating learning situations that encourage and allow students to enact their understandings of citizenship, as well as understanding the different dimensions of citizenship and how that is lived.

The presentation, based on participation of researchers across the prairies, reports report on initial work on the development of a questionnaire and interview protocol for a multi-site study, based on an extensive literature review on teacher education and citizenship education, models and approaches to researching various aspects of this topic, and further collaboration on building forms of knowledge which inform curriculum development and teacher education practices.


Saturday May 27 Day 1/Samedi 27 mai 2000, Jour Un : 1:30-2:45

Session IV:     L’analyse des pratiques de l’éducation à la citoyenneté, Partie II: Voix et stratégies des enseignant.e.s en contextes globalisés

Analysis of Citizenship Education Practices, Part II: Voice and Strategies of Teachers in Global Contexts


Citizenship Education as Democratic Schooling in Globalized Contexts: Experiences and Attitudes of Teachers in South Africa/ L’éducation à la citoyenneté en tant que scolarisation démocratique en contextes globalisés : Les expériences et les attitudes des enseignants en Afrique du sud 

Jackie Kirk (McGill University)


Abstract/Précis.   This paper will consider current experiences and attitudes of South African teachers with respect to the significant changes that are occurring both within and outside of the education system. The changing nature of society at large impacts in many ways at the school level, and is perceived and interpreted differently by the different communities involved. Changes to the school curriculum, to the organization and governance of schools, for example, are experienced first‑hand by teachers; their own lives and those of their students are influenced at different levels by increasing globalization. Discussion of 'Democratic Schooling' is encouraging teachers to promote democracy, teach the skills necessary for living responsibly within a democratic society and to transform schools into democratic organizations. Teacher voices are however, rarely heard in discussions based on policy and curriculum implementation, despite growing acknowledgement of the role of the teacher in mediating between the 'official', written curriculum and the actual experience of the students in class.

Drawing on data collected from recent fieldwork with teachers at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, I will consider ways in which the experience of South African teachers may be read in the context of Canadian work on citizenship education. The role of 'citizenship education' within the developing Curriculum 2005 and its conceptualization by South African teachers will be explored, as will perceptions of the link between the democratization of schools and the democratization of society. 

The paper will begin with a brief contextual introduction and then focus on the presentation of a variety of perspectives, experiences and strategies developed or desired by practising teachers. The research is situated within a local‑global dynamic and in conclusion some links will be made between the South African context and current educational reform in Québec.



Citizenship education: "Not, what? but who?"/ L’éducation à la citoyenneté: Pas quoi, mais qui?

Jean-Claude Couture (Alberta Teachers’ Association) and George Richardson (University of Alberta)


Abstract/Précis.  'Citizenship education' is a mantra increasingly invoked by education policy makers. Yet scanning current high school programming across Canada suggests that high school has become a fragmented and intense social space less and less amenable to creating opportunities for citizenship education. In this environment, how do teachers even attempt develop responsible citizens? The answer lies in recovering the real possibilities of citizenship education by telling the stories of individual teachers who remain committed to civic education despite the constraints they face.


Saturday May 27 Day 1/Samedi 27 mai 2000, Jour Un : 3:00-4:15

Session V:      L’analyse des pratiques de l’éducation à la citoyenneté, Partie II : Visionnement d’un avenir démocratique / Analysis of Citizenship Education Practices, Part II: Visioning a Democratic Future


Living Democracy: Renewing our Vision of Citizenship Education

Vivre la démocratie : Le renouvellement de notre vision de l’éducation à la citoyenneté

Marita Moll, Heather‑jane Robertson and Damian Solomon (Canadian Teachers' Federation)


Abstract/Précis.  This participatory session will describe a teacher‑initiated, multi‑year, multi‑sector project to engage teachers and the broader community in a discussion about citizenship education.  The objectives of the project are to examine the state of citizenship education in Canadian schools, to give Canadians an opportunity to describe their visions of citizenship education, develop principles and guidelines for policy makers and to help implement the activities and ideas envisioned in the dialogue. The unique approach to consensus building underpinning the project will be discussed. An environmental scan and related literature review produced by the project will be made available.

This 1 ½ hour session begins with a four‑person panel representing the project staff, the project advisory committee, Canadian Heritage and the Canadian Teachers’ Federation, followed by a generous question and answer period. The goal of this session is to provide opportunity for input and expressions of interest from CERN members to this important national project.  Project co‑ordinators hope that this session will extend the research network that will follow this process through its many phases.


Notes/Compte rendu.  This participatory session described a teacher initiated, multi-year, multi-sectorial project to engage teachers and the broader community in a discussion about citizenship education. The objectives of the project are to examine the state of citizenship education in Canadian schools, to give Canadians an opportunity to describe their visions of citizenship education, develop principles and guidelines for policy makers and to help implement the activities and ideas envisioned in the dialogue. The unique approach to consensus building underpinning the project in order to bring commitment, abilities and resources was discussed. .

The four phases of the project were described and an environmental scan and related literature review produced by the project was made available.  Finally, the Mathieu Da Costa Awards Program was presented and described. (JB)


Sunday May 28 Day 2/Dimanche 28 mai 2000, Jour Deux : 8:30-9:45

Séance/Session VI     Citizenship Values / Valeurs de la citoyenneté


The Centrality of Critical Thinking in Citizenship Education

La centralité de la pensée critique en éducation à la citoyenneté

Ian Wright (University of British Columbia)


Abstract/Précis.  Critical thinking has to do with using contextual and general standards and criteria to determine what to believe (epistemology) and what to do (ethics). In deciding how citizenship is to be defined (as national, as global), we have to determine who shall hold certain rihts and what responsibilities ‘citizens’ shall have. As ‘citizens’ we will have to make decisions about what to do based on the believablity of the available evidence. Thus, critical thinking is central to citizenship education.



From Genocide to Altruism:  Students' Responses to Refugees

Du génocide à l’altruisme : La réaction des étudiants face aux réfugiés

Wanda Cassidy (Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University)


Abstract/Précis.   In recent years educators have begun to re-examine what is meant by "citizenship education" for students in schools. Nel Noddings (1992, 1995) argues that citizenship education must encompass "the private realm" of personal relationships--caring for others and building a more just and humane world. According to Noddings among others, this focus should be infused into all that schools do, including curricula like social studies education which traditionally has been about young people acquiring the knowledge, skills and values required of caring, reflective and proactive citizens.

Purpose of This Study.  Despite this focus on caring as an integral part of citizenship education, the notion of "caring" is somewhat elusive, lacking a practical conceptualization which would allow teachers to identify, measure, and foster caring among their students. 

In this study a working definition of caring was developed, based on six common themes identified in the literature:  desire to help; other-directedness; perspective-taking; empathy; thoughtful analysis; concrete act.  This theoretical model was used as the basis for two scales which were developed to measure students' responses to an important societal issue, that of: "What should Canada's response be to the plight of world refugees?"

Methodology.  Four teachers were trained to apply the two caring scales to a random sample of British Columbia social studies students' responses to a refugee scenario (N=449).  Coders independently rated each set of responses twice, according to each caring scale.  These results were then examined in relation to student background characteristics and other factors:  age, gender, cultural background, academic achievement, socio-economic status, geographic location, critical thinking ability, world view.  In addition, a qualitative analysis of students' responses at the high and low end of the caring scales added a richness of detail and common themes to students' attitudes towards refugees.

Results.  These analyses revealed a range of students' responses across all scale points of both scales, from very low to very high, with a mean on the attribute scale of 3.27 (SD=1.72; range 0-6), and a mean on the holistic scale of 3.4 (SD=0.94); range 1-5).  Although more responses fell in the upper half of both scales, 39% of responses were rated at scale point 3 or below on the holistic scale, and 53% of the response lacked 3 or more of the 6 attributes of caring.  Further, empathy was the least present attribute, with only 11% of students' responses showing empathy.  Five percent of students expressed derogatory, racist or genocidal comments, plus negative themes and misinformation pervaded half of all responses.  Several students at the low end also drew pictures to reinforce their views.

Students at the upper ends of the scales, however, emulated many of the citizenship values and attitudes hoped for in our public education system.  Five themes pervaded their responses:  all human beings have the right to life and well-being; the advantaged should help the disadvantaged; everyone has a personal responsibility to make the world better; we were all immigrants or refugees, and; a multi-cultural society enriches a nation.

Multiple regression analyses revealed that gender (girls), critical thinking ability, mid-range SES, and a mutualistic world view are predictors of caring. Girls, in fact, were over-represented in the high caring group 7 to 1, while boys dominated the group which conveyed very negative attitudes.  Only boys drew pictures.  Factors which were not significant included school achievement, rural or urban location, or cultural background.

As a theoretical model to measure caring, the two scales developed showed a reasonably high correlation between caring ratings (r - 0.76), as well a high level of inter-rater reliability.

Educational Significance. There are two primary benefits to this study.

1)  The model of caring based on six identified attributes presents a working definition of caring which can be used to foster this important dimension of citizenship education.  The teachers who worked with the model commented that it was extremely useful--as a framework for understanding caring, as a tool for measuring students' level of care (towards various issues or situations or people), and as a clear set of objectives to aim towards in fostering caring among students.

2)  This study presents a picture of students' attitudes towards refugees, as well as identifies certain predictors of caring.  A subsequent study is being undertaken with a different data set (same age group, another refugee scenario) to determine if similar results occur.  (These results may be available in time for CSSE conference).  The issue of refugees and Canada's response will continue to be an important one in the coming years. 


Educating for Citizenship: Whose Culture, Whose Beliefs, Whose Values/ Éduquer à la citoyenneté: Quelle culture? Quelles croyances? Quelles valeurs?

Robert Courchêne (Second Language Institute, University of Ottawa)


Abstract/Précis. Educating for citizenship in the ESL classroom involves the presenting, sharing and negotiating of culture in an ethnocultural and linguistically diverse community. Whereas the transmission of culture (values, beliefs, traditions, etc.) in L1 contexts is done within the family, the peer-group and the cultural community through a rich variety of experiences over an extended period of time, the transmission of culture in L2 contexts is radically different for a number of reasons.

Assumptions: Everyone brings to the classroom a well developed culture anchored in a coherent set of values and most frequently from another geopolitical linguistic and cultural community. Depending on their cultural origin, learners will have varying degrees of openness to accepting a new culture and its underlying value system.

Pedagogical challenges: It is difficult to create contexts in the classroom similar to those for L1 to teach/communicate the underlying values, beliefs, norms of our society and, by extension, our vision of citizenship; i.e. how does one communicate to students our notions of time, our relationship to nature, the environment. In many cases, we are not able to even articulate such values. Even for more overt manifestations of culture such as traditions and rituals, explanation of, and participation in them does not guarantee that students will connect them with a set of underlying values.

Canadian culture: In a country as culturally diverse as Canada whose set of values is one going to teach in the classroom? What definition of citizenship will be used to identify a common underlying set of values that should be taught? What are the commonalities of Canadian culture that infuse our concept of citizenship? To arrive at consensus will we be reduced to legalistic definitions of citizenship?

Measures of integration: When cultural values and traditions are presented/discussed how does one determine what happens at the borders of the two intersecting cultures? What constitutes evidence that specific cultural values have been transmitted, negotiated and integrated in a meaningful way?

In this paper, the author will explore these issues with reference to theoretical research and practical classroom teaching.



Sunday May 28 Day 2/Dimanche 28 mai 2000, Jour Deux : 10:00-11:15

Séance/Session V:              Conceptions et contextes de la citoyenneté, Partie I : Résilience et idéalisation/ Citizenship Conceptions and Contexts, Part I: Resilience and Idealisation


École et société en milieu autochtone montagnais: les facteurs de résilience scolaire comme indice de non identification à la citoyenneté autochtone ? / School and Society among Montagnais Aboriginals: Factors of School Resiliance as Indicators of Non-Identification to Aboriginal Citizenship

François Larose et Jimmy Bourque (Faculté d’éducation, Université de Sherbrooke)


Précis/Abstract.  Dans cette communication, nous posons la question de l’éducation à la citoyenneté au sein de société dont les codes de conduites sociales ne sont pas équivalents à ceux de la société dominante, ou la structure de scolarisation est déterminée de façon externe (curriculum scolaire et personnel enseignant provenant de la société majoritaire). En nous basant les résultats de deux (2) recherches distinctes menées en milieux montagnais, nous tenterons de distinguer:


1-             Quels sont les facteurs d’identité qui sont partagés par les autochtones montagnais en âge de scolarisation ainsi que ce qui distingue ces facteurs de ceux qui caractérisent des populations régionales non-autochtones d’âge équivalent;


2-             Quels sont les facteurs de résilience (succès et persévérance scolaire) qui caractérisent les étudiants montagnais du secondaire en la relation entre ces caractéristiques et la probabilité de non intégration sociale des individus performants au sein d’un environnement de réserve;


Nous dégagerons, ensuite, une série de conclusions mettant en relation les finalités ainsi que les critères d’orientation de l’éducation à la citoyenneté dans le cadre du nouveau curriculum (Gouvernement du Québec, 1997a, 1997b) en tant que compétence transversale développée dans le cadre de divers programmes d’une part et d’autre part, la réalité identitaire et sociale telle qu’elle se vit actuellement dans l’environnement des réserves.

Nous terminerons en soulevant une série de questionnements que pose l’intégration du construit de citoyenneté dans les curricula québécois lorsque ceux-ci servent de référents à l’enseignement au sein de collectivités en plein processus de restructuration identitaire distincte.



"As the Child Grows so is the Nation Formed": Exhibiting Democratic Ideals in the Schools, 1935-1950/'Tel grandit l'enfant, tel est formée la nation' : La représentation des idéaux démocratiques dans les écoles, 1935-1950

E. Lisa Panayotidis (University of Calgary)


Abstract/Précis.    In this paper, I propose to analyse the way in which the Canadian Federal government promoted an aesthetically‑embodied form of democracy, cultural identity, and community cohesion in schools through the visual imagery in photographic and fine art exhibitions. Tacitly promoted by the National Gallery of Art, the Wartime Information Board, and the National Film Board of Canada, this agenda was linked to Social Reconstruction discourses in the closing years and aftermath of the Second World War.

At the heart of this social reconstruction discourse was the notion that Culture —and more specifically the arts — had a significant part to play in the re‑organization of the home‑front and the world—both in a practical way and in philosophical contemplation. Canadian Social Reconstructionists linked their conception of the democratic personality, characterized as individualist in nature exhibiting free expression, autonomy, and creativity, with that of the artist and the practice of artistic expression. As one commentator noted "In the idea of democracy...the arts have a greater scope for development and can thus make a greater contribution to the life of the people than under any form of government we have known." In contrast, a non‑democratic personality, in this case, the "totalitarian personality," characterized best by the Nazis and Fascists, was defined by Reconstructionists as "repressive and angry," brandishing feelings of loneliness, isolation, powerfulness, and most certainly as having few creative expressive outlets. Canadian schools meanwhile became sites in which Culture was viewed as a battleground, where images were considered a powerful weapon.

In this paper, I take up through contemporary theories of pictorial representation and visual culture–the social construction of visual experience in everyday life—the way in which provincial education systems, framed through the popular discourse and language of Federal Social Reconstruction agendas, served as sites where future citizens of the new Post‑war Canada were to be imperceptibly instructed both through language and the visual. While the attempted enculturation of student populations, especially in regard to social and political initiatives, has been a consistent feature in the twentieth century schooling, this paper will illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary approaches and theories in rethinking our traditional explanations of the relationship among schooling, state‑formation, personal and community values, and cultural relations.


Sunday May 28 Day 2/Dimanche 28 mai 2000, Jour Deux : 11:30-1:00

Séance/Session VIII   Citizenship Conceptions and Contexts, Part II: Debates and Key Questions

Conceptions et contextes de la citoyenneté, Partie II : Débats et questions clés


The Citizenship Debates: Conceptual, Policy, Experiential and Educational Issues /Les débats de la citoyenneté : Problématiques conceptuelles, politiques, expérientielles et éducationnelles (A PowerPoint Presentation)

Yvonne M. Hébert (University of Calgary) and Lori Wilkinson (University of Alberta)


Abstract/Précis : Citizenship is in transformation, experiencing an explosion of interest and an expansion of meaning. Citizenship has moved from being closed to being open, from exclusion to inclusion.  Once having a unitary, stable meaning, citizenship is now diffuse, multiple and ever-shifting.  Originally defined clearly by geographical borders and a common history, albeit of different perspectives, citizenship is increasingly in question as frontiers become permeable in the midst of massive social changes, including international trade agreements and ententes as well as global migration. These transformations are occurring in open, pluralist and democratic societies, including Canada, which are in turn preoccupied with their significance. Crucially concordant with social change, the transformation of citizenship is important because it concerns who we are, how we live together in the same country, how the country is constituted, what kind of people our children are to become, and how schools and educational institutions contribute to the creation of citizens.

A concept referring to the relationship between the individual and the state, and between individuals within a state, citizenship is a complex part of collective identity as it defines a person’s attachment to a particular state. In Canada, a state that is both multinational and polyethnic, First Nations peoples and Francophones hold special status as nations since they were in place prior to Confederation, whereas polyethnic groups who have for the most part chosen to settle in the country, have representational status. Situated critically within a pluralist democratic country with two official languages and a policy of multiculturalism, Canadian citizenship is as a result located today within multi-layered belongings and complex understandings. Within this rich context, the notions of citizenship, identity and civic education are hotly contested and interest abounds in conceptions, participation and common values which are seen as the means with which to assure a cohesive future. Which conceptions of self and of society are best suited for an unknown future? Which political and liberal values would best serve the expression of Canadian youth, their creativity and diversity, as well as their regeneration of the next decade?  Why would this be so? How would this be achieved and lived?

Much of the citizenship debate is concerned with four dimensions of citizenship: (1) the conceptual foundations of citizenship, identity and citizenship education; (2) policies and institutional goals; (3) citizenship set within the realities of Canadian society; and (4) the organization of citizenship knowledge, skills, dispositions, and pedagogical practice in the classroom.  The debate engages many disciplinary perspectives and has given rise to an increase in writings, all of which explore the topic, examine options and propose action plans.

In a liberal pluralist democracy, such as Canada, the major dimensions of the debate pull  together four sets of questions.  More specifically, (1) philosophical concerns give rise to conceptual questions: What basic conception underlies citizenship?  How has the shift from unitary to multiple citizenship occurred?  How is citizenship linked to national identity?  Which conceptions of citizenship education will assure the creation of free and equal citizens, with an enabling strength to create meaningful lives for themselves and with a strong, yet reasonable, sense of collective self-rule and attachment to the state?  (2) Institutional perspectives and policies give rise to practical concerns:  What governmental policies and institutional goals are reasonable within a dynamic understanding of citizenship?  What are the responsibilities of governments to assure the socialization of citizens and the social cohesion of the country?  (3) A body of laws, policies and institutional goals however are not the same as lived experience, giving rise to another set of questions: How is citizenship lived within the realities of Canadian society?  Does everybody have the same understandings and opportunities as other citizens?  (4) And the importance of citizenship education in times of transformation bring us to ask: What counts as citizenship education?  How is citizenship learned?  How are citizenship knowledge, behaviours, attitudes, skills, values and practices represented, taught and experienced in classrooms? 

In our paper, we deal with the four major dimensions each in turn and while doing so, situate the complex chapters within the citizenship debate, while paying particular attention to education for citizenship. Taken altogether, our analysis presents and acknowledges current complex realities in support of the view that there are various interpretations and multiple identifications which are compatible with democratic citizenship rather than a single, undifferentiated notion of citizenship, a perspective that we term ‘multiple citizenship’. Today, identity is plural, with each person belonging to many groups and defining his/her self in these multiple belongings, without necessarily hierarchizing the levels and forms of belonging. We no longer live in a society that can be defined and understood in terms of one group, one territory, one language, one religion, one economy. As we shall see, these realities create exciting challenges in attempting to determine what would count as essential in the education of citizens and no easy solutions are readily available as the debate has hardly come to a close. Our analysis  addresses multi-faceted issues and advocacy positions which are at the forefront of contemporary political, social and educational thought and that are of particular concern to policy makers and practitioners. 


Notes/Compte rendu.  This session began with an introduction aiming at highlighting our inability to define our identity and values, thus asking the question of how to do this in a citizenship education curriculum.  The link between citizenship and the nation-state was briefly presented: originally defined clearly by geographical borders and a common history, albeit of different perspectives, citizenship is increasingly in question as frontiers become permeable in the midst of massive social changes, including international trade agreements and ententes as well as global migration. This issue was followed by the description and discussion of four types of citizenship: consensual citizenship, universal citizenship, differentiated citizenship and inclusive citizenship.  Crucially concordant with social change, the transformation of citizenship is important because it concerns who we are, how we live together in the same country, how the country is constituted, what kind of people our children are to become, and how schools and educational institutions contribute to the creation of citizens.  Much of the citizenship debate is concerned with four dimensions of citizenship: (1) the conceptual foundations of citizenship, identity and citizenship education; (2) policies and institutional goals; (3) citizenship set within the realities of Canadian society; and (4) the organisation of citizenship knowledge, skills, dispositions, and pedagogical practice in the classroom.  The case of the First Nations was addressed as a specific example of the different issues and meanings of citizenship in Canada. (JB)



Questions clés de la recherche sur l'éducation à la citoyenneté: Pistes pour le réseau.

Key research issues on citizenship education: Future Directions for the Network.

Michel Pagé (Université de Montréal)


Précis/Abstract.    J'ai envie d'élaborer une réflexion de fond sur ce sujet, comme contribution aux travaux du comité  formé pour diriger le Réseau de recherche sur l’éducation à la citoyenneté, dans le prolongement de ma contribution au dernier chapitre du livre sur la citoyenneté en transformation portant sur des problématiques conceptuelles et éducationnelles.


Sunday May 28 Day 2/Dimanche 28 mai 2000, Jour Deux :

Séance/Session IX:              Assemblée générale annuelle/ Annual General Meeting

Chair:                                     Dr. Yvonne Hébert, Coordination, CERN/RRÉC


Notes/Compte rendu.

The chair advised the participants that CERN’s recurring presence and participation in the annual conference of the CIESC (Comparative and International Education Society of Canada) was seen as problematic by some  members of CIESC, as discussed at the AGM of the CIESC, within the annual CSSE conference. Basically, CERN is perceived as being too successful, as it takes up too much ‘space’. Moreover, participants do not necessarily attend each others’ sessions (a socialization problem). The President of CIESC would like to see the CERN sessions within the annual conference rather than as a pre- or post-forum. for Congress 2001 at U Laval in late May. This would mean that abstracts and symposia would need to be completed and submitted directly to CIESC’s programme chair, within the CSSE procedure as posted on their website and circulated on the CSSE listserv. Discussion ensued. To facilitate communication, a member of the audience offered to serve as contact person with the CIESC conference organizers (and later withdrew after the meeting). It was decided to proceed as CIESC wished, thus next year in Laval, there would be no CERN Forum.organized from within the network; members were encouraged to submit their proposals for a presentation, panel, symposia, poster session, open paper session, to the Chair of the CIESC programme, by the posted deadline of October 16, 2001. The right to review the situation was reserved in light of the degree and quality of the CERN participation at the next conference. Following up after the conference/forum, the coordinator is to advise CERN members of the change of procedure by means of the CERN listserv as well as the CIESC president and programme chair.

Other issues discussed included the publication of papers presented at the 2nd National CERN Forum in that authors are encouraged to submit them to their preferred scholarly journal.

Participants were thanked for their good work and acknowledgements proffered to the Multiculturalism Programme, Canadian Heritage for their support. The meeting was adjourned, until next year. (CR & YMH)



[1] Thanks are due to Alan Sears for accepting a late invitation to open the 2nd National Forum., replacing Graham Pike who was unable to attend for health reasons,. It is anticipated that CERN could benefit at a later date from the originally scheduled talk on the topic of: Citizenship Education and Globalization: Experiences and Lessons Learned, from our colleagues, Graham Pike (University of Prince Edward Island) and David Selby (OISE/FEUT, U Toronto).  Sincere thanks to Alan.


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