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Final Report - Part  2.1

Towards a Research Agenda for Citizenship Education in Canada:

Part 2: Developing Common Pan-Canadian Collaborative Research Projects

The remaining time together at the Think Tank, i.e., all of Sunday March 29, 1998, was devoted to the discussion of collaborative research projects across Canada, set within the four majors themes:

Citizenship Conceptions and Contexts;
Citizenship Practices;
Citizenship Values; and
Citizenship Skills, Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours;

which were the object of the group’s consensus at the onset of the morning. The tasks that follow are to identify research strategies, to sketch out the research projects, to set priorities, to identify human and financial resources as well as to propose timelines. Thus, the ideas are refined and the tables seen earlier are reworked.

2.1 Developing Research Projects on Conceptions and Contexts of Citizenship Education

Participants: Rosa Bruno-Jofre, Fabienne Desroches, Michel Pagé, Graham Pike, Myer Siemiatycki, Alan Sears, Elisabeth Barot

Recorder: Stacey Kaketsis

2.1.1 Link of Theory and Practice

Alan: Elitist conception: deferent to authority, highest participation is voting - leads to a certain conception of citizenship education.

Rosa: What are the implications for citizenship education of globalization, and links between democracy and market forces? All concepts of citizenship are linked to views on democracy.

Question 1: What has been done in conceptions of citizenship?

Michel: Three or four conceptions - liberal, egalitarian, philosophical conceptions; Elizabeth Theiss - Morse: Empirical work on conceptions - review of literature: conceptualization of good citizenship and political participation. Four theoretical conceptions defined; interviewed people who appeared to be typical exponents of theoretical models, but found their practice was not in line with models. Therefore, refined models of participation.

Myer: Gigantic body of theoretical history from Plato onwards, over variety of historical periods. In political science, huge volume of literature on participation and barriers to participation.

Alan/Rosa: Barriers to participation are both internal (beliefs etc.) and external.

Michel: Survey of 17 and 18 year olds in Montreal - starting from macro concepts of IEA study (participation, identity and diversity), plus conceptions of rights/equality. Macro concepts now being sub-divided, example: relation to diversity - how do you think diversity should be administratively organized?

Rosa: discussion of multiple origins of identity is very important.

Alan: Measuring democracy - David Beetham - very good for identifying concepts. Empirical work on what orientation of citizenship exists in official policy - activist, global. But expect huge gap between theoretical policy conceptions and practice. Relatively progressive policy, but observation suggests not enacted.

Graham: Global education paradigms (send articles to group)

Rosa: Working on citizenship in Manitoba schools in 1920's and 30's - historical parallels. The conceptions of citizenship over time are very important - historical and political good. Disciplining the educational market place - parents are seeing their lack of power in the educational system.

2.1.2.What Work Has Been Done and is on Going

· There is survey work being done in Montréal
The survey is focused on 17 and 18 year olds and what they think of citizenship.
Identified by the IEA
· The Giant Tradition - sociologist, geography, etc.
· Robert Bellah - sociologist from Stanford University
Habit of the Heart 1988
The Good Society 1991
® Community, Individualism - Return to biblical and public notions of community; common good was present in early U.S.A
· Bengerman Barber - The Republican Notion of Citizenship Education.
· Robert Putman - Yale University - "Making Democracy Work" - social capital base of society.
· Peprella - Common good
Montreal government in Belgium
Limit to competitive
· Fabienne- Pre teachers:
- What do they think of citizenship education
What are their notions of the concept of citizenship education?
·Murray Print - Sydney Australia
Active citizenship
Active citizenship revisited
Similar as Canada
They have reports of what teachers require
Australian Government web site - Publications
·Graham Pike- global schools
compartmentalist paradigm
wholistic paradigm
How do teachers handle both of these?
·Rosa - Oral History

2.1.3 Overview 1


- Historical, philosophical, sociological
- Global, continuum of conceptions
Political science
Links among disciplines
New work


Michel Pagé survey
Alan Sears - children's understanding
Yvonne Hébert- Identity
Conception of participation


Conceptions of education in school
What do teachers think of citizenship education

2.1.4 Overview 2:

Conceptions of citizenship and citizenship education and factors that influence conceptions of citizenship, actual involvement, practice, treatment of others.


Heritage Canada is asking for proposals
Literature review/conceptual framework to be developed.
link implications to citizenship education
Large scale survey - on the IEA


(Magsino, Romulo, Dean of Faculty of Education - Manitoba)
flexible to the needs of teens
variety of perspectives
begin on a comparative national context then focus on Canada

History - Citizenship: Anglo Conformity - Multi cultural Global

Canada does not have a nation it is a multiple state linked with globalization
How the paradigms of citizenship change
How do we attach citizenship education with the changes in this paradigm
Patterns of global transportation
Human community and participation - education connection
Urban Citizenship research - parents as models
Schools participation research
Links to multidimensional citizenship
        Social identity is multidimensional


Michel Pagé's survey in Montréal on the 17 and 18 year olds could be extended:

- possible national survey (Pan Canada)
- variety of dimensions:
- 150 questions
- nationally and internationally
- Are students aware what citizenship is?
- comparison between the students in Canada and the United States
- survey children at all ages

Alan Sears and Andy Hughes - children and young peoples views of citizenship. There is no difference between immigrants and Canadian born on their conception of citizenship.
Charles Ungerleider - Adolescent's understanding of rights and the multicultural journal.
Marguerite Lavallée - Representation of rights
Yvonne Hébert - Identity and Language.
Michel Pagé - Identification to the host society (multiple identifications) The psychological concept of the term is that it is not possible to have multiple identities.

Myer Siemiatychi - Citizenship and recent immigrants.

- Native country experiential values
- Expectations/views of Canada


Graham Pike
- Compartmentalized/Holistic
- Views of global education/global citizenship

Fabienne Desroches - Survey of students understanding, skills and attitudes.
Conception of citizenship
Conception among pre-service students of five Universities
Extend to compare with the English language Universities.
Replicate Alan Sears’ survey with teachers.
Janine Hohl - Diversity in the teachers classroom.
basic human rights
studies on teachers and their attitudes on diversity principally when they have to deal with parents (example, when students get excused from a school activity)
What initiative and activities do schools engage in to encourage the practice of citizenship?

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