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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Remains a classic and influential analysis of prejudice and discrimination.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 0

Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of freedom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Abstract (from the jacket): ;In this new book, for the first time Altemeyer presents the complete findings of his award-winning research. He provides important new insights into the authoritarian personality, revealing how aggression, fear, and reverence for authority are the ingredients that fuel right-wing authoritarian movements. He explores the effects that parents, religion, and early education can have on the development of authoritarian attitudes in young adults--and explains why some religions produce greater levels of authoritarianism in their members than others. He examines the connections between right-wing authoritarianism and political affiliations, exploring the question of whether authoritarianism exists on the Left. And he examines the nature of the authoritarian threat to Western society--and how the power of our educational systems, news media, and religious institutions can be positively harnessed to ensure individual freedoms.

Annotation: Presentation of research using RWA scale that concerns especially the development of RWA and the explanation of authoritarian aggression. Includes results on the relations between RWA and prejudice.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Amaro, H., & Russo, N. F. (1987). Hispanic women and mental health: An overview of contemporary issues in research and practice. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 393-407.


Abstract & Annotation:;A review of research and issues pertaining to the mental health of Hispanic women in the United States. The authors emphasize the importance of social and economic issues to Hispanic women's mental health, with Hispanic women generally having higher unemployment, lower wages, and lower status jobs than Anglo women. Hispanic women also tend to have both poorer and larger families than Anglo women, are frequently divorced or separated, and are more likely to begin childbearing in their teenage years than non-Hispanic women. These factors may all be highly salient to women's mental health. The authors then discuss relevant issues in mental health research and services including service access, cultural sensitivity and acculturation.

Topic(s):A7,C6, C2

Population Origin: 4

Amir, Y. (1976). The role of intergroup contact in change of prejudice and ethnic relations. In P. A. Katz (Eds.), Towards the elimination of racism (pp. 245-308). Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press.


Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Classic analysis of the contact hypothesis suggesting that intergroup contact may reduce prejudice.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Angus Reid (1991). Multiculturalism and Canadians: Attitude study 1991, National survey report. Submitted to Multiculturalism and Citizenship Canada.


Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Report that describes the results of a national telephone survey conducted from June 29 to July 17, 1991 by the Angus Reid Group among 3,325 Canadians.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 5

Aronowitz, M. (1985). The social and emotional adjustment of immigrant children: A review of the literature. International Migration Review, 18, 237-257.


Abstract & Annotation:;A summary of the research into the prevalence of social and emotional adjustment problems among immigrant children. The author notes that social and emotional disorders are not necessarily more prevalent among immigrant children than among non-immigrant children but that when disturbances are reported they tend to involve behavior or conduct disorders, and self-identity conflicts. Language fluency has not been found to be a substantial predictor of children's adjustment but prejudice, discrimination and segregation may contribute or even lead to behavioral disorders among immigrant children.

Topic(s):C1, C2, D2

Population Origin: 14

Arredondo, P. M. (1984). Identity themes for immigrant young adults. Adolescence, 19, 977-993.


Abstract & Annotation: ;The author reports the results of a five year longitudinal study with 30 immigrant young adults. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected to study identity themes. Important issues included a sense of belonging versus estrangement, primary group/cultural values and personal relations. The importance of family relations was frequently mentioned and many individuals reported that their parents played a major role in career planning. Parents had high expectations for their children. Relations with peer groups were primarily with others of the same ethnic group or other immigrants. With respect to dating, all of the women dated men from similar ethnic backgrounds whereas the men dated women outside of their ethnic background. Both men and women reported that parental approval was a critical factor.

Topic(s):C2, D1

Population Origin: 14

Baptiste, D. A. (1990). The treatment of adolescents and their families in cultural transition: Issues and recommendations. Contemporary Family Therapy, 12,3-22.


Abstract & Annotation:;A summary of the problems facing immigrant families with adolescent children with recommendations for therapy. The author identifies three transitional problems of adolescent immigrants: loyalty binds, in which children feel torn between their parents and the new culture; role conflicts, where families may suffer role reversals or boundary changes between children and parents; and anger and depression, brought about by being forced to leave their native country, peer support networks, and their status in the peer hierarchy. Therapy issues such as lack of credibility and dissonance between the cultural positions of the therapist and the family are discussed and treatment solutions are offered.

Topic(s):C2

Population Origin: 14

Baptiste, D. A. (1993). Immigrant families, adolescents and acculturation: Insights for therapists. Marriage and Family Review, 19, 341-363.


Abstract & Annotation: ;The author examines some of the specific effects of acculturation on immigrant families with a focus on the issues faced adolescent immigrants. Issues discussed include changes in familial and generational boundaries, lessening of parental authority over children because of cultural conflicts in parental roles, fear of losing children to the new culture, unpreparedness for change and conflict as part of the immigration experience, and extended family enmeshment/disengagement problems. Other variables which may influence the family's transition to the new culture include the availability of an extended support network in the new country, the extent to which immigrant families are able to interact with these networks, and the permanence of the immigrants' residence in the new country. Issues of importance to family therapists dealing with immigrant families are reviewed and recommendations for therapists and therapy are made.

Topic(s):C2

Population Origin: 14

Baron, R. A., Byrne, D., & Watson, G. (1995). Exploring social psychology. Scarborough, Ontario: Allyn & Bacon.


Abstract & Annotation:;Textbook of social psychology adopting a Canadian perspective and presenting research on attitudes towards multiculturalism. It includes a chapter entitled "The self in a multicultural context" and sections on "Prejudice in a multicultural high school" and on "Cultural identification of Canadian ethnic groups".

Topic(s):B3, C1, C2

Population Origin: 14

Bernard, P. (1993). L'immigration. Paris: Marabout.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Analysis of historical and contemporary issues related to immigration in France.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 7

Berry, J. W., & Bourcier, D. (1989). Attitudes towards official bilingualism in Eastern Ontario. Paper presented at the annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Analysis of attitudes towards official bilingualism and its correlates among community samples of Ontario including members of APEC.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 0

Berry, J.W., & Kalin, R. (1995). Multicultural and ethnic attitudes in Canada: An overview of the 1991 National survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27, 301-320.


Abstract: Assessed attitudes toward aspects of multiculturalism (Multicultural Ideology, Perceived Consequences of Multiculturalism, and Multicultural Program Attitudes) and toward ethnic and immigrant groups, as well as Tolerance and Canadianism with 3,325 Ss. Attitudes toward multiculturalism were moderately positive, and tolerance moderately high; there was also a relatively high sense of attachment and commitment to Canada. Immigrant and ethnic groups of European origin were more positively evaluated than those of non-European origin. Variations in these attitudes by region of residence and ethnic origin revealed significant differences, as Ss of French origin living in Quebec tended to be less supportive than Ss of British and other origins living outside Quebec. Despite some signs of ethnocentrism, there are good prospects for achieving a diverse and tolerant society in Canada. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Annotation: Analysis and development of scales to measure multicultural attitudes using data from the 1991 Angus Reid survey. The authors discuss how these results compare to those obtained in a similar survey of 1974 by Berry, Kalin and Taylor (1977) and conclude that there are grounds for some moderate optimism.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Berry, J. W., Kalin, R., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Attitudes à l'égard du multiculturalisme et des groupes ethniques au Canada. Ottawa: Approvisionnements et Services Canada.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: First major study of attitudes towards immigration, adopting a social-psychological perspective, among a national sample of Canadians.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491-511.


Abstract & Annotation: ;Presents a model of acculturative stress and a comparative framework, presenting the results of a series of studies using a reliable and valid indicator in common and involving nearly 1200 individuals from five different types of acculturating groups in Canada: Immigrants, refugees, sojourners, native peoples, and ethnic groups.

Topic(s):C1, C2

Population Origin: 14

Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38, 185-206.


Abstract & Annotation:;Discusses acculturation attitudes with regards to cultural maintenance of one's own cultural group and contact with other cultural groups orientations. Also defines the acculturation attitudes: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. These attitudes are measured among groups in Australia and Canada including natives, immigrants, and also established ethnic groups. Finally, presents the reliability, validity, and scale interrelations of the attitude scale and discusses these issues with reference to maintenance and contact. Some practical applications of acculturation attitudes are addressed last.

Topic(s):C2, D2

Population Origin: 14

Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (1992). Cross-cultural psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Abstract (from the book): ;"Cross-cultural psychology" is a comprehensive overview of cross-cultural studies in a number of substantive areas--psychological development, social behaviour, personality, cognition, and perception--and covers theory and applications in acculturation, ethnic and minority groups, work, communication, health, and national development. Cast within an ecological and cultural framework, it views the development and display of human behaviour as the outcome of both ecological and sociopolitical influences, and it adopts a " universalistic" position with respect to the range of similarities and differences in human behaviour across cultures: basic psychological processes are assumed to be species-wide, shared human characteristics, but culture plays variations on these underlying similarities.

Annotation: Introduction to the field of cross-cultural psychology including chapters dealing with Canadian research in the area of bilingualism and intergroup relations.

Topic(s):C1, C2

Population Origin: 14

Bond, M. H. (1988). Finding universal dimensions of individual variation in multicultural studies of values: The Rokeach and Chinese value surveys. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 1009-1015.


Abstract & Annotation: ;A report of a 21 culture study of the Chinese Value Survey (CVS) and a 9-culture study of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). A pooled factor analysis was conducted to discover pancultural patterns of association among values. Two factors emerged from the CVS: Social Integration versus Cultural Inwardness and Reputation versus Social Morality. Four factors emerged from the RVS: Competence versus Security, Personal Morality versus Success, Social Reliability versus Beauty, and Political Harmony versus Personal Sociability. Individuals in each survey were then given factor scores, which were analyzed for sex and culture effects. Average scores for individuals from the cultures common to both surveys provided evidence that the CVS contained a dimension not found in the RVS. Specifically, the second factor of the CVS correlated very highly with the third factor of the RVS, but the first factor of the CVS did not correlate significantly with any of the RVS factors.

Topic(s):D1

Population Origin: 5, 11

Bottomley, G. (1976). Some Greek sex roles: Ideals, expectations and action in Australia and Greece. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 10, 8-16.


Abstract & Annotation: ;The data represent in-depth interviews with 14 Greek families in Sydney, Australia. The author classified conjugal roles into three groups: complementary, joint and segregated. Close-knit family networks were more likely to be associated with segregated conjugal roles and patriarchal authority. In all families, however, there was a basic division of labour by which men were expected to be bread-winners and women to handle domestic chores. Few of the men shared domestic tasks, even when their wives were employed outside the home. A higher education led to some ambivalence about traditional role definitions, but there was little evidence that it led to more egalitarianism in practice.

Topic(s):C2, D1

Population Origin: 7, 13

Bourhis, R. Y. (Ed.). (1984). Conflict and language planning in Québec. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Analysis of the social psychology of language and intergroup relations via a detailed examination of Bill 101 in Québec.

Topic(s):E2

Population Origin: 0

Bourhis, R. Y. (1987). Social psychology and heritage language research: A retrospective view and future trends. In J. Cummins (Eds.), Heritage language research in Canada: Research perspectives (pp. 13-44). Ottawa: Secretary of State, Multiculturalism.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: Review of research in social psychology relating to multiculturalism and ethnic relations with a view to suggesting policy implications and future research directions.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Bourhis, R. Y. (1994). Ethnic and language attitudes in Québec. In J.W.Berry & J. Laponce (Eds.), Ethnicity and culture in Canada: The research landscape (pp. 322-360). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Excellent overview of research on multiculturalism in Québec not including the results of the Angus Reid survey of 1991.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 0

Bourhis, R. Y., & Guimond, S. (1992). La psychologie sociale des préjugés et de la discrimination entre groupes sociaux. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 13, Numéro thématique: Préjugés et discrimination.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Overview of a thematic issue of the journal devoted to the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Bourhis, R. Y., & Leyens, J.-P. (1994). Stéréotypes, discrimination et relations intergroupes. Liège: Pierre Mardaga.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Canadian and European social psychologists present the state of the art in the social psychology of intergroup relations and social cognition.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Bourhis, R. Y., Sachdev, I., & Gagnon, A. (1994). Intergroup research with the Tajfel matrices: Methodological notes. In M.P. Zanna & J. M. Olson (Eds.), The psychology of prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (pp. 209-232). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.


Abstract (from the chapter): ;The Tajfel matrices are dependent measures often associated with what is known in the intergroup literature as the minimal group paradigm / provide the methodological information needed to use and score the Tajfel matrices as an instrument for conducting intergroup research / (deal) with three practical concerns: 1. a brief description of the Tajfel matrices / 2. a step-by-step guide for calculating the pull scores from the Tajfel matrices / 3. social orientations and Tajfel matrices

Annotation: Description of the minimal group paradigm and presentation of the various measures of discrimination that can be derived from the Tajfel matrices.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 0

Burns, A., Homel, R., & Goodnow, J. (1984). Conditions of life and parental values. Australian Journal of Psychology, 36, 219-237.


Abstract & Annotation: ;Data were collected from 305 parents of nine to eleven year-olds residing in Sydney, Australia to examine parental values and three aspects of social structure; immigrant status, quality of neighbourhood, and housing type. Parents responded to Kohn's 13 parental values items and one additional item, "gets on well with brothers and sisters." The strongest association to emerge was that between immigrant status and a discriminant function centered on scholastic achievement, sex role performance, relations with siblings, appearance, and manners. Quality of neighbourhood was positively related to valuing children's sociability. Middle income families favoured self-control, school performance and neatness/cleanliness. The traditional self-direction/conformity factor did emerge from the data but immigrant status, quality of neighbourhood and income explained more variance than parents' occupation and income.

Topic(s):B2, D1

Population Origin: 13, 14

Cameron, J. E., & Berry, J. W. (1990). Intergroup attitudes: Self-esteem and threats to identity. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Ottawa, Ontario.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Reports the results of a study among 196 university students testing the effect of self-esteem, threat, and cultural and economic security on attitudes toward immigrants.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 14

Cerroni-Long, E. L. (1984). Marrying out: Socio-cultural and psychological implications of intermarriage. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 16, 25-46.


Abstract & Annotation: ;A theoretical paper outlining the role of marriage in society. Exogamous and endogamous societies are described, and the intermarriage is thoroughly explored with respect to necessary and efficient causes. In keeping with this analysis, the author notes that marriage is an institution that ensures perpetuation of a group. Marriage can therefore be given a social, rather than an individual, value in a culture. Finally, the author summarizes stress factors in intermarriage at the social and personal level.

Topic(s):D1

Population Origin: 14

Chataway, C. J., & Berry, J. W. (1989). Acculturation experiences, appraisal, coping, and adaptation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 295-309.


Abstract & Annotation:;The study included 42 Chinese students from Hong Kong, 43 French-Canadian students, and 42 English-Canadian students. Subjects completed a questionnaire containing inquiries into their personalities, their lives, their coping styles and their satisfaction with their coping abilities, and their psychological and physical health. Three most common problems for these university students were: uncertainty of the future, academic difficulties, and loneliness. The Chinese subjects in the sample experienced high anxiety and prejudice, more problems with adaptation and communication, lower competence with the English language, as well as lower perceived social support from friends. The Chinese students reacted to these problems with less positive-thinking and less tension-reduction coping responses. Their coping satisfaction was low and they had poorer health.

Topic(s):B1, D2

Population Origin: 5, 11

Clément, R. (1987). Second Language proficiency and acculturation: An investigation of the effects of language status on individual characteristics. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 5, 271-290.


Abstract & Annotation:;Investigated 293 Canadian francophone university students and their differences in attitudes and motivation toward learning a second language. Minority groups experienced more self-confidence and more proficiency in using the second language. There was an interaction of language status and frequency of contact. Also, proficiency in the second language impacted level of acculturation. Self-confidence was found to be strongly associated with proficiency and acculturation. Finally, the article includes a discussion of the results with regards to second language education programs.

Topic(s):B1

Population Origin: 5

Clément, R., Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. (1977). Motivational variables in second language acquisition: A study of francophones learning English. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 9, 123-133.


Abstract & Annotation:;Examined the motivational characteristics involved in learning English as a second language among 304 Grade 10 and 11 Montreal francophone students. Various scales were used, including several attitude and motivational scales testing for such factors as attitudes toward English Canadians, parental encouragement, the opportunity to use English, and so on. A factor analysis tested such variables together with indices of intelligence, French achievement, mathematics, and English. Results support the notion that students' motivation to learn a second language depends on their attitudes toward the community of that language. Motivation was influenced by an integrative motive, but especially by actual competence derived from prior experience with the language giving way to an increase a sense of self-confidence.

Topic(s):C2, D2

Population Origin: 5

Clément, R., Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. (1980). Social and individual factors in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 12, 293-302.


Abstract & Annotation:;Used indices of attitude, anxiety, motivation, fear of assimilation, intelligence, achievement, and person contact with anglophones to examine the influence of social factors on the motivation associated with learning a second language. The subjects in their sample were 223 Grade 11 francophone students living in Montreal. Factor analysis revealed that among francophone students examined, contact with anglophones enhanced the self-confidence associated with attaining English as a second language. Fear of assimilation was found to be negatively correlated with the Integrative Motive factor involved. The authors suggest a dynamic relationship between integrated motive and self-confidence. Finally, the authors address the implications of the threat of assimilation to ethnic identity.

Topic(s):C2

Population Origin: 5

Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1985). Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 4, 21-37.


Abstract: Annotation:;Using the causal model technique, the article addresses major aspects of Richard Clément's (1980) model of second language proficiency. Subjects were 1,800 francophone students in Grades 7, 9 and 11 attending schools in eastern Quebec, Canada. Data were collected on: attitudes, motivation, aptitude, and second language proficiency. Analysis of the data was performed using the LISREL V computer package. The results supported Clément's hypotheses and the causal sequence presented in his study. The results are finally discussed within the context of current models of second language proficiency.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 5

Cooley, C.H., (1956). Human nature and the social order. New York: Free Press.

Abstract:N/A

Annotation: A classic treatise of symbolic interaction theory.

Topic(s):N/A

Population Origin: 0

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608-630.


Abstract:Although several psychological theories predict that members of stigmatized groups should have low global self-esteem, empirical research typically does not support this prediction. It is proposed here that this discrepancy may be explained by considering the ways in which membership in a stigmatized group may protect the self-concept. It is proposed that members of stigmatized groups may (a) attribute negative feedback to prejudice against their group, (b) compare their outcomes with those of the ingroup, rather than with the relatively advantaged outgroup, and (c) selectively devalue those dimensions on which their group fares poorly and value those dimensions on which their group excels. Evidence for each of these processes and their consequences for self-esteem and motivation is reviewed. Factors that moderate the use of these strategies and implications of this analysis for treatment of stigmas are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Annotation: A highly influential theortical statement about discrimination. A seminal paper.

Topic(s):C2, D1, D2

Population Origin: 14

Crocker, J., Voelkl, K., Testa, M., & Major, B. (1991). Social Stigma: The affective consequences of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 218-228.;


Abstract:Two experiments investigated the hypothesis that the stigmatized can protect their self-esteem by attributing negative feedback to prejudice. 59 women participated in the 1st experiment. Women who received negative feedback from a prejudiced evaluator attributed the feedback to his prejudice and reported less depressed affect than women who received negative feedback from a nonprejudiced evaluator. In the 2nd experiment, 38 Black and 45 White college students received interpersonal feedback from a White evaluator, who either could see them or could not. Compared with Whites, Blacks were more likely to attribute negative feedback to prejudice than positive feedback and were more likely to attribute both types of feedback to prejudice when they could be seen by the other student. Being seen by the evaluator buffered the self-esteem of Blacks from negative feedback but hurt the self-esteem of Blacks who received positive feedback. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Annotation: An excellent laboratory investigation linking discrimination and self-esteem.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 5

Curtis, J. E., & Lambert, R. D. (1976). Educational status and reactions to social and political heterogeneity. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 13, 189-203.

Abstract:N/A


Annotation: Report the analysis of a national survey of intergroup attitudes comparing French Canadians and English Canadians.

Topic(s):D2

Population Origin: 5

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